In a Bank for International Settlements (BIS) paper published in 2015, the authors describe the common reasons central banks intervene. Based on a BIS survey, in foreign exchange markets "emerging market central banks" use the strategy of "leaning against the wind" "to limit exchange rate volatility and smooth the trend path of the exchange rate". 4 :5,6 In their 2005 meeting on foreign exchange market intervention, central bank governors had noted that, "Many central banks would argue that their main aim is to limit exchange rate volatility rather than to meet a specific target for the level of the exchange rate". Other reasons cited (that do not target the exchange rate) were to "slow the rate of change of the exchange rate", "dampen exchange rate volatility", "supply liquidity to the forex market", or "influence the level of foreign reserves". 5 :1
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Ben Linfoot is backing a Richard Hannon-trained runner at Kempton's evening meeting on Wednesday.
Ebor hero Nakeeta and 2016 Ascot Gold Cup winner Order Of St George feature among a total of 140 horses nominated for the Emirates Melbourne Cup.
Anita Chambers provides a selection for every race on Tuesday, with Huntsmans Close fancied to take advantage of a generous handicap mark.
New academic research conducted by Professors Michael L. Hemler, University of Notre Dame’s Mendoza College of Business, and Thomas W. Miller, Jr., Mississippi State University, show that some options-based portfolio strategies outperform long stock.
The Options Industry Council (OIC) today announced that Gina McFadden, a long-time leader in the U.S. listed equity options industry, will be the first woman to receive the 2017 Joseph W. Sullivan Options Industry Achievement Award.
Learn what a LEAP option is and how it compares to regular-term equity options.
The Options Industry Council (OIC), an industry resource funded by OCC and the U.S. options exchanges, announced the results of a study, How Financial Advisors Use and Think About Exchange-Listed Options.
Getting started with options is easier than you think, click to learn more.
Find out how OIC is implementing more eco-friendly practices.
Questions about anything options-related?Email an options professional now.
Introduce yourself to the world of equity options at the ground level, using everyday language.
on the overall market for VIX options. Total VIX call open interest has risen to an all-time high thanks to 50 Cent's purchases, Chintawongvanich said
Risk is often measured as the expected value of an undesirable outcome. This combines the probabilities of various possible events and some assessment of the corresponding harm into a single value. See also Expected utility. The simplest case is a binary possibility of Accident or No accident. The associated formula for calculating risk is then:
Experimental studies show that brief surges in anxiety are correlated with surges in general risk perception. 48 Anxiety exists when the presence of threat is perceived (Maner and Schmidt, 2006). 47 As risk perception increases, it stays related to the particular source impacting the mood change as opposed to spreading to unrelated risk factors. 48 This increased awareness of a threat is significantly more emphasized in people who are conditioned to anxiety. 49 For example, anxious individuals who are predisposed to generating reasons for negative results tend to exhibit pessimism. 49 Also, findings suggest that the perception of a lack of control and a lower inclination to participate in risky decision-making (across various behavioral circumstances) is associated with individuals experiencing relatively high levels of trait anxiety. 47 In the previous instance, there is supporting clinical research that links emotional evaluation (of control), the anxiety that is felt and the option of risk avoidance. 47
Note: As defined, audit risk does not consider the impact of an auditor misstatement and so is stated as a simple probability. The impact of misstatement must be considered when determining an acceptable audit risk. 32
Means of assessing risk vary widely between professions. Indeed, they may define these professions; for example, a doctor manages medical risk, while a civil engineer manages risk of structural failure. A professional code of ethics is usually focused on risk assessment and mitigation (by the professional on behalf of client, public, society or life in general).
One of the first major uses of this concept was for the planning of the Delta Works in 1953, a flood protection program in the Netherlands, with the aid of the mathematician David van Dantzig. 43 The kind of risk analysis pioneered there has become common today in fields like nuclear power, aerospace and the chemical industry.
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Thanks for that. I guess I never really described how to determine the bigger number when looking at them in binary.
@Rick, m still confuse i can’t understand :/ plzz explain me 🙁
You have to swap the numbers and negate (see section “Subtracting a Bigger Number From a Smaller Number”).
The trader purchased 315,800 shares of chipmaker Altera one minute after the Journal reported Intel was
1) Perform proper fundamental analysis Fundamental analysis is the first and the most important building block of any type of market research before you start deciding your investment into any type of binary trading. You need to have high quality stocks in order to perform profitable trades in the short term as well as in the long run. This process actually involves screening different financial securities and finding out the most profitable ones to get higher ROI.
6) Right exit strategy Entering any type of binary trading needs to have a proper exit strategy to manage the investment risk. There are lots of variables present in any type of financial trading. So you need to be thoroughly ready to face any investment risks during the trades.
After this investment, it is the trader who decides which side the security would go. The trader can choose down side (put option) or up side (call option) depending on his/her own market analysis. Once the trader decides the probable direction, the binary trading broker software calculates the final payments and the trader submits the final order. This binary options Trading Tutorial was written to explain the basics of profitable options trading.
By B. Huebner | Submitted On November 08, 2011
Options trader makes 18 billion
Should you take your payout as a lump sum or as an annuity? If your only company retirement plan is a pension, the likelihood is that this decision has already been made for you. That's because most pensions pay benefits only in the form of a monthly annuity; in other words, you'll get equal monthly payments for the rest of your life. Very few remaining pensions allow employees to take a lump sum instead. You're most likely to face this choice if your retirement package includes a profit sharing savings plan or 401(k). Though such plans usually pay benefits as lump sums, your company may allow you to convert your account balance into an annuity. And even if your savings plan requires you to take a lump sum, you can always use the money to buy an annuity from an insurance company.
In converting your benefits to a lump sum, a pension administrator calculates the amount it would take to pay you a monthly check for the rest of your expected life, as determined by actuarial tables (which show the average probable length of remaining life expectancy for people of different ages), with the assumption of a particular rate of return over time. But pension payments stop at your life's end (or the life of your surviving spouse), not at the end of the actuarial life expectancy that's assigned to you at retirement. Thus, an annuity could be a bargain - if, of course, you manage to live longer than average. A lump sum would be more advantageous if, unfortunately, you die shortly after your retirement party. So, for the sake of practicality, if you're generally chronically ill, it might be wise to consider taking a lump sum; conversely, if your or your spouse's heritage contains quite a bit of longevity, you could possibly lean toward the annuity.
At last! You've served your time, building up your pension benefits by consistently squirreling away a portion of your paycheck into the company savings plan and tending it wisely through the years. Retirement's finally here, and now you have a gut-wrenching decision to make: how to take the money. And it's a decision not to be taken lightly; after all, at stake is likely the bulk of your retirement wealth. Since most choices open to you are irrevocable, if you choose incorrectly you're stuck with the consequences for the rest of your life. For those reasons, you'll probably want to have an experienced financial planner or accountant help you run the pertinent numbers to determine what's best for you, as well as keep you from being tripped up by the tax laws. Here are some things you'll need to consider:
It's important to note that in calculating lump-sum conversions, employers use unisex life expectancy tables, which understate women's life expectancy. Therefore, with all other factors being equal, that makes an annuity a better financial deal for a woman than for a man. Interest rates can also determine whether a lump sum or an annuity is more advantageous. The higher the rate the plan's actuaries assume that it can earn, the smaller the lump sum that's needed to pay the benefit. For example, in the mid-1980s, when interest rates were around 10%, a pension of $1,000 per month for a 60-year-old man translated to a lump sum of roughly $93,000. More recently, when interest rates were in the region of 6%, the same benefit produced a lump sum of $128,000.
The annuity is guaranteed to last for the remainder of your life. On the other hand, even with a moderate inflation rate of 5% or so, fixed monthly payments will decline in purchasing power as time passes. For instance, a 5% annual price increase will halve the real value of your checks after only fourteen years. However, if you take a lump sum, you could put a portion of the funds into growth investments to preserve your assets' purchasing power. Additionally, if you're thinking of leaving money to your heirs, a lump sum payout might be beneficial.
The most common types of annuities are life income, which pays you a certain monthly amount until your death; life income joint and survivor, which assures that if you die first your spouse will continue to receive a certain amount until he or she dies; and life income and period certain, which pays benefits for your lifetime or for a specified period - whichever is longer. The option you choose will affect the size of the monthly checks that you'll receive. Life-only annuities pay the largest pension amounts but are necessarily cut off at your death; the other options continue to pay your beneficiaries at the cost of reducing your income by 10- to 15% during your lifetime. However, one possible method of gaining the advantages of both scenarios would be to select the life-only option and in addition to it buy a life insurance policy. In this manner, when you die and the pension payments cease, the insurance benefits will then provide continued income for your spouse. But be careful if you decide to use this option; it must be done correctly. Under federal law, a married person is prohibited from choosing the life-only option without the written consent of his or her spouse. So, you'll need your wife or husband's approval in order to implement this financial approach. In doing so, it's wise to obtain a notarized waiver of the joint-and-survivor option from your spouse.
To read each individual digit in the time, the user adds the values that each illuminated LED represents, then reads these from left to right. The first two columns represent the hour, the next two represent the minute and the last two represent the second. Since zero digits are not illuminated, the positions of each digit must be memorized if the clock is to be usable in the dark.
The above display uses three binary number columns, one for each of the units (hours, minutes and seconds) of the conventional time system.
For 24-hour binary-coded sexagesimal clocks, there are 11 or 17 LED lights to show us the time. There are 5 LEDs to show the hours, there are 6 LEDs to show the minutes, and there are 6 LEDs to show the seconds. 6 LEDs to show the seconds are not needed in 24-hour binary-coded sexagesimal clocks with 11 LED lights.
As of 2008, the most common binary clocks sold are designed by Anelace Inc., and use six columns of LEDs to represent zeros and ones. Each column represents a single decimal digit, a format known as binary-coded decimal (BCD). The bottom row in each column represents 1 (or 20), with each row above representing higher powers of two, up to 23 (or 8).
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The fourth step in strategic marketing is strategy development. This involves selecting a target market, a distinct group of consumers who are highly likely to buy the firm's product. Planners must also choose implementation tactics, specifically, effective ways to use the marketing mix tools of product, promotion, price and distribution to reach and influence prospective buyers. The fifth step, evaluation, means specifying how, when and by whom these tactics are to be monitored and assessed over time.
Organizations conduct a situation analysis, also known as a SWOT, to evaluate and prioritize their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This second step in the strategic marketing process helps managers understand the resources they can build on and the challenges they face. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors, under the firm's control. For example, a good image in the fashion press would be a key strength for a dress manufacturer, while a poor relationship with clothing retailers would be a weakness. Opportunities and threats arise from the external environment, like a strong economy or new payroll tax.
The third step in strategic marketing is to set marketing objectives. These are clear, measurable goals that give decisionmakers a basis for making choices and assessing progress. Objectives are typically expressed in terms of one or more quantitative targets like revenue, profit, sales or market share. Importantly, each objective must be achievable within a fixed period of time. For example, aiming for a five-percent increase in profits might be realistic within a year, but probably not within one quarter.
The first step in strategic marketing is to articulate the reason why the enterprise exists and how it can benefit target consumers over the long term. In particular, this mission statement is intended to anticipate the future and describe an ongoing role for the organization's product, service or expertise. For example, the mission of an airline might be to provide continuing innovation in global transportation. A hospital could state a mission to take the lead in improving public health and education.
Amy Handlin has been writing about government, business and politics since 1999. She is the author of "Be Your Own Lobbyist" and "Government Grief: How to Help Your Small Business Survive Mindless Regulation, Political Corruption and Red Tape." She is also a state legislator and associate professor. Handlin graduated from Harvard and holds advanced degrees in marketing from Columbia and New York University.
The mission of an airline might be to provide continuous travel innovations.
Strategic marketing is a planning process that seeks to establish a clear direction and unified purpose for all marketing efforts. Its conclusions are documented in a marketing plan that is regularly updated. The five steps in strategic marketing are: identifying a mission; analyzing the situation; setting objectives; developing a marketing strategy; and planning for evaluation.